How long does it take for Stem Cell Therapy to Work


 Administrator    14 Jan 2020 : 17:05
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It all depends on many different variables

How long does it take for Stem Cell Therapy to Work

Perhaps the most commonly asked question we receive is how long does it take for Stem Cell Therapy to Work? Well, it isn’t an easy question to answer.

It depends on the condition being treated, how severe the disease or damage is, the age, and overall health of the person being treated with the stem cells. It also depends on the type of stem cells. The following are types of stem cells.

  1. Embryonic stem cells. Embryonic stem cells come from early embryos that are about five days old. These are pluripotent stem cells, which means they can divide and grow into any type of cell in the body. 

  2. Adult stem cells are more limited in the type of cells they might develop into.

  3. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) are cells that are artificially created to mimic embryonic without having the risk of being rejected by the immune system.

  4. Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are ‘generic’ adult cells that can develop into many different but specific cell types and can be found in the bone marrow (BM), adipose, umbilical cord blood, placenta, and dental pulp. 

  5. Perinatal stem cells. These stem cells in amniotic fluid and umbilical cord blood, including Wharton's Jelly. These stem cells can change into a variety of specialized cells. They contain no embryonic tissue, just the discarded products of conception after a full-term birth.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising therapeutic approach primarily due to their anti-fibrotic (anti-scarring), angiogenic (vessel growth), antimicrobial,  immune-stimulating or modulating capacities, and organ protecting properties. MSCs exhibit many immune-boosting properties demonstrated in vivo as well as in vitro and are being studied in the treatment of sepsis. Because sepsis is rapidly deadly, the studies are demonstrating that MSCs are relatively quick in their onset of action.

Septic shock is defined as a case of sepsis where serious circulatory, cellular, and metabolic abnormalities occur due to a bacterial infection in the bloodstream that considerably increases the risk of death. The inflammation and immune response in sepsis is rapid and leads to a form of immune paralysis. Sepsis is now defined as massive dysfunction of the body’s response to an infection, leading to multiple organ failure. 

Clinically, sepsis is measured or diagnosed by excess lactate (a harmful metabolite from acidosis in the blood as a result of low oxygen levels), failure to maintain blood pressure above 65 mmHg by adequate resuscitation, leading to use of potent drugs to maintain the heart function and raise blood pressure.

Because of the deadliness, severity, and rapid onset of sepsis, MSCs have shown promise in treating the condition because they are easy to isolate and grow. They have low immunogenicity, making them particularly useful in the immune-crisis in sepsis. There are no adverse effects of intravenous infusion and are deemed safe.

MSCs in Sepsis

The immune response to the bacteria is disproportionate, with a massive influx of white blood cells that further increase the inflammatory response. This depletion of immune cells in sepsis is associated with low cell energy. As a result, organs fail as blood vessels are damaged, blood clotting is impaired, and fluid leaks out of the bloodstream that leads to excessively low blood pressure.

 Is stem cell therapy successful?

It promotes the repair of tissue or organs that are diseased, dysfunctional, or injured. It is a form of tissue and organ transplantation that replaces damaged cells so that the body can heal. 

What are the side effects of stem cell therapy?

If the cells come from yourself or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), then the biggest risk is that it fails to work or does suboptimally. However, a bone marrow transplant has numerous risks. The particular risks of stem cell therapy depend on many factors, including the disease or condition that caused the problem, the type of transplant, your age, and overall health.

What are the possible complications from stem cells in a bone marrow transplant include:

  1. Graft-versus-host disease (allogeneic transplant only)- when donor stem cells detect that existing tissue is foreign and attack it. The risk is greater with an unrelated donor.

There are two kinds of GVHD. Acute GVHD happens earlier, during the first months after the transfer. It generally affects your skin, gastrointestinal tract, or liver. Chronic GVHD typically develops many months later and can affect many organs. Symptoms and signs of GVHD included cough, shortness of breath, rashes, dry mouth, joint and muscle pain, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting.

Other possible risks associated with stem cell transplants:

  1. Cells fail to grow
  2. Organ damage
  3. Infections
  4. Cataracts
  5. Infertility
  6. New cancers or tumors

 What diseases can be cured with stem cells?

Diseases that might benefit from stem cell therapies include those with type 1 diabetes, spinal cord injuries, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, heart disease, stroke, burns, sepsis, cancer, and arthritis.

In stem cell treatment, stem cells repopulate the tissue, organ, or bone marrow cells damaged by chemotherapy or disease. They help the person’s damaged immune system to fight certain types of cancer and blood cell-related diseases, such as leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and neuroblastoma.

Stem Cell Therapy Benefits 

  • Replace damaged, diseased, and injured tissue or organs
  • Help understand how diseases occur
  • Test drugs for safety and effectiveness

 




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