What does the latest Stem Cell for brain injuries research tell us?
Brain Cell Regeneration is a very complex topic that has been a large focus of much research. Recently, the emphasis of much research has focused on what role Stem Cells can play in neural regeneration. So what has the research found?
It depends on their location in the body. There are two categories of nerve cells. One category of nerves is the Peripheral Nervous System (PVS) or those that are not part of the brain, such as the nerves that supply muscles and the skin. The other is the Central Nervous System (CNS), which consists of the brain and spinal cord. There are three main types of nerve cells in the CNS: neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. They are derived from Neural stem cells (NSCs), which can self-renew and self-generate in certain regions of the brain.
Astrocytes are the neural cell population with structural and supportive roles such as supplying essential materials/nutrients to neurons and participating in the blood-brain barrier, and, crucially, certain astrocytic cell subpopulations have stem cell properties. Others can help develop the activity of the synapse, which is the connection between two neurons that releases and takes up neurotransmitters and electrical pulses.
Once most brain neurons have migrated to their correct positions during embryonic development, they are surrounded by astrocytes to form functional synapses. At approximately this time, oligodendrocytic differentiation begins. Oligodendrocytes arise from specific locations within the CNS.
Adult neurogenesis is the process of forming new neurons from neural stem cells (NSCs) and intertwining them into the brain. Neurogenesis occurs in specific regions of the brain known as the hippocampus throughout life. During aging, NSCs and their new nerves exhibit reduced growth and neuron production, which is thought to contribute to age-related cognitive impairment and reduced ability to self-repair damage neurons.
While there are limits to neurogenesis in the brain, the ability of nerves of the PNS can regenerate and repair themselves. Motor and sensory neurons originate in the brain and become part of the PNS after they exit the spinal cord.
When a painful stimulus hits a sensory nerve in the skin, that information is transmitted to the central nervous system (CNS). Once the sensory signal has been received by the CNS, the CNS sends an instantaneous signal to the motor neurons found in the muscle and makes it contract to move away from the painful stimulus.
A motor neuron in the PNS transmits signals to a muscle or a gland. Neurons are composed of two parts and possess structures that allow for the transmission of impulses between the nerve itself and the dendrites located at both ends of each nerve. Dendrites receive and transmit impulses from one nerve to another while the nerves conduct impulses.
When the nerve is traumatized or cut, the nerve stops working. When the nerve is disconnected from the body, there will be degeneration of the nerve, and the degeneration will stop at the synapse and will not affect the next neuron.
Regeneration of the peripheral nerve is possible. The stump that is connected ultimately to the spinal cord that then travels to the brain will regenerate, and the stump that isn’t connected will die. The body’s immune system mops up the dead tissue and surrounding myelin sheath, which is an insulator of the nerve and helps the nerves to transmit impulses quickly.
Schwann cells also help clear the debris from degeneration and death. They start to grow and sprout new growth at a rate of about 1 millimeter each day. In the meantime, the muscle starts to atrophy or shrinks.
Once nerve growth is adequate, the connection is reestablished, with the muscle getting bigger and healthier. If the nerve fails to establish a connection, a neuroma forms and the muscle continues to atrophy.
There are three types of nerve injuries: Type I (neurapraxia), Type II (axonotmesis), and Type III (neurotmesis).
Neurapraxia: the mildest form of nerve injury and the nerve stays intact.
Axonotmesis: a severe form of injury where the nerve is damaged, but the surrounding tissue stays intact. There will be partial or complete recovery of the nerve.
Neurotmesis: There will be no recovery of the nerve. The injury usually requires surgery. There will be degradation, death, and neuroma formation.
There are some favorable factors that affect nerve recovery after repair. They are younger age, distal injury (closer to the skin), no significant delay in repair, sharp cuts (better than a crush), and if the blood supply is preserved.
Stem Cell Treatment providers, such as Stemaid Institute Europe, have shown that Stem Cell Therapy for Brain Injuries can produce very positive outcomes. Individuals who have undergone the treatment process have reported significant positive results following treatment and have walked away with a higher quality of life following brain cell regeneration thanks to the application of Embryonic Stem Cells.
Contact us today for further information regarding our therapeutic treatment.